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Land Survey Glossary
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HACK - A horizontal notch cut well into a tree at about breast height. In a cadastral survey, two hacks are cut to distinguish them from other, accidental marks. A vertical section of the finished hack marks resembles a double-V extending across a tree from two to six inches, depending on the diameter of the tree. The "blaze" and "hack" marks are equally permanent, but so different in character that one mark should never be mistaken for the other.  

Hacks are sometimes called "notches" or, in older surveys, "chaps." See BLAZE. 

HALF - A fractional part of a regular section subdivision determined according to equally divided linear measurements without consideration of the areas of the halves. Half a regular section consists of any two quarter sections which have a common boundary, divided by a line between opposite 1/4 corners. In past years, patents for half of a Government lot have been erroneously issued. The division line was determined by equally divided linear measurements without regard to the actual area of the halves. In private land exchanges, it is generally presumed that a conveyance for half of a parcel grants half the area unless otherwise stated. 

HALF-MILE POSTS - In early survey practice, in parts of Alabama and Florida, so-called "half-mile posts" were established. In some cases the "half-mile post" was not at mid-point on the section line. In other cases the "half-mile post" was in true position for the quarter-section corner. In still other instances the "half-mile post" was not on true line nor at mid-point on the line. Each set of field notes regarding "half-mile posts" require individual consideration, as the survey practices were not uniform even within the same surveying district. 

HALF-RANGE NUMBERS - In the instances where the distance between the regular position for township boundaries is so great that the application of normal rules would result in sections elongated in excess of 120 chains, half-range (or half-township) numbers may be created. Also used for identifying areas left unsurveyed by hiatus. See HALF-TOWNSHIP NUMBERS. 



HALF-TOWNSHIP NUMBERS - In the rare cases where the distance between the regular position for township boundaries is so great that the application of normal rules would result in sections elongated in excess of 120 chains, half-township (or half-range) numbers may be created. Also used for identifying areas left unsurveyed by hiatus. See HALF-RANGE NUMBERS. 

HARMONIOUSLY RELATED - Conditions existing during the corner restoration process when a corner point under consideration reasonably conforms in position to that indicated by evidence at other corners of the survey, considering both the record and the survey conditions. 

HAWAII ANNEXATION - The Republic of Hawaii was formally annexed to the United States by the voluntary action of its citizens and a joint resolution of Congress approved July 7, 1898. The transfer of sovereignty took place August 12, 1898. Since Hawaii had been an independent nation, it was not a public-land state. 

HEADING - In mining, a preliminary passageway driven for exploratory purposes or to facilitate future work. Also, the forward end of a drift or tunnel. 

HEADQUARTERS ENTRY - A cash entry of 5 acres or less of public lands in Alaska which are used as a headquarters for a productive industry. 

HEADQUARTERS SITE - Five acres or less of public lands in Alaska which are used as, and are subject to entry as, headquarters for a productive industry. 

HEARING - Opportunity for testimony and presentation of evidence at proceedings ordered and held pursuit to U.S.D.I. Hearing Procedures (43 C.F.R. 1850). (See 43 C.F.R. part 4) 

HEAVE - In mining, the horizontal distance between the parts of a vein that have been separated by a fault, measured along the strike of the fault. A vertical fault can have no heave, and a horizontal fault can have no throw. See THROW. 

HEAVY BEARING - A survey slang term for a bearing which departs markedly from cardinal. A bearing of 2 or more degrees from cardinal may be considered a "heavy" bearing. "Strong bearing" is used synonymously. 

HECTARE - A metric unit of area equal to 100 ares or 2.471 acres. 

HEREDITAMENT - Property subject to inheritance. See PROPERTY. 

HIATUS - An area between two surveys, the record of which describes them as having one or more common boundary lines with no omission. See OVERLAP and HIATUS*. 

HIGH WATER - 1) The maximum height or stage reached by rising water. 2) (NOS) The maximum height reached by a rising tide. The height may be due solely to the periodic tidal forces or it may have superimposed on it the effects of prevailing meteorological conditions. 

HIGH WATER LINE (NOS) - The intersection of the land with the water surface at an elevation of high water. 

HIGH WATER MARK - 1) The line which the water impresses on the soil by covering it for sufficient periods to deprive it of upland vegetation. 2) (NOS) A line or mark left upon tide flats, beach, or alongshore objects indicating the elevation of the intrusion of high water. The mark may be a line of oil or scum on alongshore objects, or a more or less continuous deposit of fine shell or debris on the foreshore or berm. This mark is physical evidence of the general height reached by wave run-up at recent high waters. It should not be confused with the mean high water line or mean higher high water line. See LOW WATER MARK and ORDINARY HIGH WATER. For tidal 

conditions, See MEAN HIGH WATER and MEAN LOW WATER. 

HIGHWAY ABANDONMENT - Non-use of public roads, usually defined by statute law in the various states. 

HISTORICAL INDEX - A chronological summary of all actions which affect, have affected, or will affect the title to, disposition of, or use status of lands and resources within a township. See LAND STATUS RECORDS. 

HISTORIC COAST LINE - The coast line position at date of statehood from which seaward distances may be measured to determine territorial waters of some States, Florida and Texas for example. 

HOME-SITE ENTRY - The terms of the Act of May 14, 1898, provided for each entry of 5 acres or less of public lands in Alaska used for residence purposes. 

HOMESTEAD ENTRY - An entry under the United States land laws for the purpose of acquiring title to a portion of the public domain under the homestead laws, consisting of an affidavit of the claimant's right to enter, a formal application for the land, and payment of the money required. 

HOMESTEAD ENTRY, ORIGINAL - An original entry under the homestead laws, also, the first homestead entry which was made by any individual, also, a homestead entry which was made pursuant to the first homestead law, the act of May 20, 1862 (12 Stat. 392) as codified in Sec. 2289 of the Revised Statutes. A second homestead entry was permitted under specific conditions as provided in the public land laws. 

HOMESTEAD ENTRY SURVEY - A metes and bounds of lands entered under the Act of June 11, 1906 (34 Stat 233), as amended. 

HOMESTEAD SETTLEMENT, ALASKA - Settlement, for homestead purposes, of unsurveyed or surveyed public land in Alaska according to the provisions of the Act of May 14, 1898 (30 Stat. 409; 48 U.S.C. 371; 43 C.F.R. Subpart 2567 et. seq.), as amended, which extended the homestead laws to Alaska. All homestead claims in Alaska must be perfected in accordance with the 3-year homestead law of June 6, 1912 (37 Stat. 123; 43 U.S.C. 164, 169, 218). 


HUMBOLDT MERIDIAN - The principal meridian governing surveys in northwestern California; it was adopted in 1853. 

HUNTSVILLE MERIDIAN - The principal meridian governing surveys in northern Alabama and a small part of Mississippi; it was adopted in 1807. 

HYDROGRAPHIC DIVIDE - Ridge or elevated land area which separates the direction of flow of streams and rivers. The division of the watersheds. See CONTINENTAL DIVIDE. 

Source:  Glossary of Cadastral Surveying Terms, 1980,  Bureau of Land Management, U. S. Department of the Interior 
                 * = consult separate BLM Glossary of Mapping Terms, not included herein.

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